The Wood Bull Guides

Section 34, Subsections (20) to (34) [Zoning By-law Amendment Appeal Process, New Municipal Decisions and Second Appeals]

Subsections amended by Bill 139 are denoted with a (*), except for administrative changes.

Subsections 34(23) through (34) establish the new framework under which appeals of zoning by-laws and requested amendments made pursuant to subsections 34(11) and (19) are processed under the post-Bill 139 Planning Act.

A dismissal is mandatory, under subsection 34(25), where the Tribunal has determined that an appeal is not valid.  The grounds for dismissal include the failure to provide the requisite explanation(s) in the notice of appeal, which reflects the restrictive basis for appeal in subsections 34(11.0.0.0.4) and (19.0.2).

New subsections 34(26) through (26.10) and (26.13) establish the powers of the Tribunal on appeals made in respect of a zoning by-law or  requested amendment.

First Appeal:  The Tribunal must dismiss the appeal, unless the Tribunal determines that there are issues of consistency or conformity with provincial plans, policy statements and official plans (as set out in s.34(26.1) and (26.2)).  Where the Tribunal makes such a determination,  the Tribunal shall provide the municipality with the opportunity to make a new decision on the matter.

Second Appeal: On an appeal concerning a new decision that the municipality was given an opportunity to make, the Tribunal may:

  • for appeals under subsection 34(11) re non-decision: amend the by-law in such manner as the Tribunal may determine or direct the council of the municipality to amend the by-law in accordance with the Tribunal’s order (as set out in s.34(26.6));
  • for appeals under subsection 34(11) re refusal: amend the by-law in such manner as the Tribunal may determine or direct the council of the municipality to amend the by-law in accordance with the Tribunal’s order, if the Tribunal determines that there are issues with consistency/conformity (as set out in s.34(26.7));
  • for appeals under subsection 34(19): repeal the by-law in whole or in part, amend the by-law in such manner as the Tribunal may determine or direct the council of the municipality to do so in accordance with the Tribunal’s order, if the Tribunal determines that there are issues with consistency/conformity (as set out in s.34(26.8)).

Draft By-law: With the consent of all specified parties, a draft by-law may be presented to the Tribunal for approval at the first appeal and/or second appeal stage.

The amended appeal process does not apply where the Minister has notified the Tribunal of provincial interest in a matter.  In such instance, the Tribunal may make a decision as to whether the appeal should be dismissed or the by-law should be repealed or amended in whole or in part, or direct the municipality to do so.


Click here to expand all subsections below or click on the individual subsection to expand/collapse the details for that subsection

  • 34(20) WHEN GIVING OF NOTICE DEEMED COMPLETED [Notice of Decision]

    34(20) For the purposes of subsections (11.0.3) and (19), the giving of written notice shall be deemed to be completed,

    (a) where notice is given by publication in a newspaper, on the day that such publication occurs;

    (a.1) where notice is given by e-mail, on the day that the sending by e-mail of all required notices is completed;

    (b) where notice is given by personal service, on the day that the serving of all required notices is completed;

    (c) where notice is given by mail, on the day that the mailing of all required notices is completed; and

    (d) where notice is given by telephone transmission of a facsimile of the notice, on the day that the transmission of all required notices is completed.  R.S.O. 1990, c. P.13, s. 34 (20); 1994, c. 23, s. 21 (9); 2015, c. 26, s. 26 (10).

  • 34(20.1) USE OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES

    34(20.1) When a notice of appeal is filed under subsection (19), the council may use mediation, conciliation or other dispute resolution techniques to attempt to resolve the dispute.  2015, c. 26, s. 26 (11).

  • 34(20.2) NOTICE AND INVITATION [For Dispute Resolution]

    34(20.2) If the council decides to act under subsection (20.1),

    (a) it shall give a notice of its intention to use dispute resolution techniques to all the appellants; and

    (b) it shall give an invitation to participate in the dispute resolution process to,

    (i) as many of the appellants as the council considers appropriate,

    (ii) the applicant, if there is an applicant who is not an appellant, and

    (iii) any other persons or public bodies that the council considers appropriate.  2015, c. 26, s. 26 (11).

  • 34(20.3) EXTENSION OF TIME [To Forward Appeal Record, Dispute Resolution]

    34(20.3) When the council gives a notice under clause (20.2) (a), the 15-day period mentioned in clause (23) (b) and subsections (23.2) and (23.3) is extended to 75 days.  2015, c. 26, s. 26 (11).

  • 34(20.4) PARTICIPATION VOLUNTARY [Dispute Resolution]

    34(20.4) Participation in the dispute resolution process by the persons and public bodies who receive invitations under clause (20.2) (b) is voluntary.  2015, c. 26, s. 26 (11).

  • 34(21) WHEN BY-LAW DEEMED TO HAVE COME INTO FORCE

    34(21) When no notice of appeal is filed under subsection (19), the by-law shall be deemed to have come into force on the day it was passed except that where the by-law is passed under circumstances mentioned in subsection 24 (2) the by-law shall not be deemed to have come into force on the day it was passed until the amendment to the official plan comes into effect.  R.S.O. 1990, c. P.13, s. 34 (21); 1994, c. 23, s. 21 (10); 1996, c. 4, s. 20 (8).

  • 34(22) AFFIDAVIT RE NO APPEAL, ETC.

    34(22) An affidavit or declaration of an employee of the municipality that notice was given as required by subsection (18) or that no notice of appeal was filed under subsection (19) within the time allowed for appeal shall be conclusive evidence of the facts stated therein.  R.S.O. 1990, c. P.13, s. 34 (22); 1996, c. 4, s. 20 (9).

  • 34(23) RECORD [To Tribunal] (*)

    34(23) The clerk of a municipality who receives a notice of appeal under subsection (11) or (19) shall ensure that,

    (a)  a record that includes the prescribed information and material is compiled;

    (b)  the notice of appeal, record and fee are forwarded to the Tribunal,

    (i) within 15 days after the last day for filing a notice of appeal under subsection (11.0.3) or (19), as the case may be, or

    (ii) within 15 days after a notice of appeal is filed under subsection (11) with respect to the failure to make a decision; and

    (c)  such other information or material as the Tribunal may require in respect of the appeal is forwarded to the Tribunal.  2006, c. 23, s. 15 (11); 2015, c. 26, s. 26 (12); 2017, c. 23, Sched. 3, s. 10 (8).

    Legislative History

    Bill 139 amended this subsection by deleting the reference in subclause (b)(ii) to "refusal or neglect" to make a decision, and substituting it with "failure" to make a decision.  Bill 139 amended this subsection by replacing the words “the Municipal Board” and “the Board” with the words “the Tribunal”.

    Related Regulations

    O. Reg. 545/06: ZONING BY-LAWS, HOLDING BY-LAWS AND INTERIM CONTROL BY-LAWS, s.7 re Record compiled by clerk

    O. Reg. 174/16 (as amended by O. Reg. 67/18): TRANSITIONAL MATTERS — GENERAL, s.23 Appeal re amendment to zoning by-law where application refused; s.24 Appeal re amendment to zoning by-law where failure to make decision on application; s.25 Appeal re passing of zoning by-law, etc.

    Related Tribunal Rules

    Rules of Practice and Procedure:

    Rule 26.04 Enhanced Municipal Record When an appeal is filed with the municipality or approval authority in a proceeding to which the rules of Part II apply, the municipality or approval authority shall prepare a municipal record as prescribed by regulation under the Planning Act and in accordance with Rule 5.04., and in addition to those requirements, shall organize the record of documents and materials in chronological order with a contents page(s) outlining the title or a concise description of each entry separated by tabs and capable of being copied and bound or secured in a binder(s). The municipality or approval authority shall provide a paper copy of the municipal record to the Tribunal, as well as one electronic copy (pursuant to Rule 7.01). The municipality or approval authority shall also provide one electronic copy to each person who has filed an appeal, and shall maintain one paper copy with the clerk of the municipality, which shall be available for inspection by any person or copied at a reasonable cost during business hours.

  • 34(23.1) WITHDRAWAL OF APPEALS

    34(23.1) If all appeals to the Tribunal under subsection (19) are withdrawn and the time for appealing has expired, the Tribunal shall notify the clerk of the municipality and the decision of the council is final and binding.  1993, c. 26, s. 53 (3); 2017, c. 23, Sched. 5, s. 93 (3).

    Legislative History

    Bill 139 amended this subsection by replacing the words “the Municipal Board” and “the secretary of the Board” with the words “the Tribunal”. 

  • 34(23.2) EXCEPTION

    34(23.2) Despite clause (23) (b), if all appeals under subsection (19) are withdrawn within 15 days after the last day for filing a notice of appeal, the municipality is not required to forward the materials described under clauses (23) (b) and (c) to the Tribunal.  1999, c. 12, Sched. M, s. 25 (2); 2017, c. 23, Sched. 5, s. 93 (4).

    Legislative History

    Bill 139 amended this subsection by replacing the words “the Municipal Board” and “the Board” with the words “the Tribunal”.  

  • 34(23.3) DECISION FINAL

    34(23.3) If all appeals to the Tribunal under subsection (19) are withdrawn within 15 days after the last day for filing a notice of appeal, the decision of the council is final and binding.  1999, c. 12, Sched. M, s. 25 (2); 2017, c. 23, Sched. 5, s. 93 (5).

    Legislative History

    Bill 139 amended this subsection by replacing the words “the Municipal Board” and “the Board” with the words “the Tribunal”.

  • 34(24) HEARING AND NOTICE THEREOF

    34(24) On an appeal to the Tribunal, the Tribunal shall hold a hearing of which notice shall be given to such persons or bodies and in such manner as the Tribunal may determine.  R.S.O. 1990, c. P.13, s. 34 (24); 2017, c. 23, Sched. 5, s. 93 (6).

    Legislative History

    Bill 139 amended this subsection by replacing the words “the Municipal Board” and “the Board” with the words “the Tribunal”. 

    Related Tribunal Rules

    Rules of Practice and Procedure: see Rules 26.11 to 26.26 regarding the process prior to and at Tribunal hearings.

  • 34(24.1) RESTRICTION RE ADDING PARTIES

    34(24.1) Despite subsection (24), in the case of an appeal under subsection (11) that relates to all or part of an application for an amendment to a by-law that is refused, or in the case of an appeal under subsection (19), only the following may be added as parties:

    1. A person or public body who satisfies one of the conditions set out in subsection (24.2).

    2. The Minister.  2006, c. 23, s. 15 (12).

  • 34(24.2) SAME

    34(24.2) The conditions mentioned in paragraph 1 of subsection (24.1) are:

    1. Before the by-law was passed, the person or public body made oral submissions at a public meeting or written submissions to the council.

    2. The Tribunal is of the opinion that there are reasonable grounds to add the person or public body as a party.  2006, c. 23, s. 15 (12); 2017, c. 23, Sched. 5, s. 80.

    Legislative History

    Bill 139 amends this subsection by replacing the words “the Municipal Board” and “the Board” with the words “the Tribunal”.  This amendment will come into force on a day to be named by proclamation of the Lieutenant Governor.

  • 34(24.3) - (24.6) REPEALED (*)

    34(24.3) - (24.6) Repealed: 2017, c. 23, Sched. 3, s. 10 (9).

    Legislative History

    Bill 139 repealed s.34(24.3) to (24.6):

    New information and material at hearing

    (24.3) This subsection applies if information and material that is presented at the hearing of an appeal described in subsection (24.1) was not provided to the municipality before the council made the decision that is the subject of the appeal.  

    Same

    (24.4) When subsection (24.3) applies, the Municipal Board may, on its own initiative or on a motion by the municipality or any party, consider whether the information and material could have materially affected the council’s decision, and if the Board determines that it could have done so, it shall not be admitted into evidence until subsection (24.5) has been complied with and the prescribed time period has elapsed. 

    Notice to council

    (24.5) The Municipal Board shall notify the council that it is being given an opportunity to,

    (a) reconsider its decision in light of the information and material; and

    (b) make a written recommendation to the Board.  

    Council’s recommendation

    (24.6) The Municipal Board shall have regard to the council’s recommendation if it is received within the time period mentioned in subsection (24.4), and may but is not required to do so if it is received afterwards.

    Related Sections

    Parallel subsections: official plans and official plan amendments (s.17(44.3) to (44.6)), which subsections were also repealed by Bill 139.

    Related Regulations

    O. Reg. 174/16 (as amended by O. Reg. 67/18): TRANSITIONAL MATTERS — GENERAL, s.23 Appeal re amendment to zoning by-law where application refused; s.24 Appeal re amendment to zoning by-law where failure to make decision on application; s.25 Appeal re passing of zoning by-law, etc.

    Wood Bull Commentary

    Subsections 34(24.3) to (24.6) have been repealed in their entirety by Bill 139.  Those subsections allowed the Ontario Municipal Board to give a municipal council the opportunity to reconsider a decision it made in light of information and material presented at the hearing of an appeal that was not before council at the time of its decision and to make a recommendation to the Board in that regard.

    Subsection 42(3)(b) of the new Local Planning Appeal Tribunal Act, 2017 provides that, in respect of some oral hearings for zoning by-law matters (exceptions include some appeals of new decisions), no party or person may adduce evidence or call or examine witnesses.  This new subsection may have rendered subsections 34(24.3) to (24.6) of the pre Bill-139 Planning Act largely moot.

  • 34(24.7) CONFLICT WITH SPPA [Re Adding Parties] (*)

    34(24.7) Subsections (24.1) and (24.2) apply despite the Statutory Powers Procedure Act2006, c. 23, s. 15 (12).

    Legislative History

    As Bill 139 amended this subsection to remove references to subsection (24.3) to (24.6), which were repealed by Bill 139.

    Related Sections

    Parallel subsections: 

    • official plans and official plan amendments (s.17(44.7))

    • requested official plan amendments (s.22(11.03))

    Related Statutes

    Section 5 of the Statutory Powers Procedures Act:

    Parties

    5. The parties to a proceeding shall be the persons specified as parties by or under the statute under which the proceeding arises or, if not so specified, persons entitled by law to be parties to the proceeding.

    Related Regulations

    O. Reg. 174/16 (as amended by O. Reg. 67/18): TRANSITIONAL MATTERS — GENERAL, s.23 Appeal re amendment to zoning by-law where application refused; s.24 Appeal re amendment to zoning by-law where failure to make decision on application; s.25 Appeal re passing of zoning by-law, etc.

  • 34(25) DISMISSAL WITHOUT HEARING (*)

    34(25)  Despite the Statutory Powers Procedure Act and subsection (24), the Tribunal shall dismiss all or part of an appeal without holding a hearing on its own initiative or on the motion of any party if any of the following apply:

    1.  The Tribunal is of the opinion that the explanations required by subsection (11.0.0.0.4) do not disclose both of the following:

    i.  That the existing part or parts of the by-law that would be affected by the amendment that is the subject of the application are inconsistent with a policy statement issued under subsection 3 (1), fail to conform with or conflict with a provincial plan or fail to conform with an applicable official plan.

    ii.  The amendment that is the subject of the application is consistent with policy statements issued under subsection 3 (1), conforms with or does not conflict with provincial plans and conforms with applicable official plans.

    2.  The Tribunal is of the opinion that the explanation required by subsection (19.0.2) does not disclose that the by-law is inconsistent with a policy statement issued under subsection 3 (1), fails to conform with or conflicts with a provincial plan or fails to conform with an applicable official plan.

    3.  The Tribunal is of the opinion that,

    i.  the appeal is not made in good faith or is frivolous or vexatious,

    ii.  the appeal is made only for the purpose of delay, or

    iii.  the appellant has persistently and without reasonable grounds commenced before the Tribunal proceedings that constitute an abuse of process.

    4.  The appellant has not provided the explanation required by subsection (11.0.0.0.4) or (19.0.2), as applicable.

    5.  The appellant has not paid the fee charged under the Local Planning Appeal Tribunal Act, 2017 and has not responded to a request by the Tribunal to pay the fee within the time specified by the Tribunal.

    6.  The appellant has not responded to a request by the Tribunal for further information within the time specified by the Tribunal.  1994, c. 23, s. 21 (11); 1996, c. 4, s. 20 (11, 12); 2006, c. 23, s. 15 (13-15); 2009, c. 33, Sched. 21, s. 10 (4); 2015, c. 26, s. 26 (13); 2017, c. 23, Sched. 3, s. 10 (11).

    Legislative History

    Bill 139 repealed and replaced former s.34(25):

    Dismissal without hearing

    (25) Despite the Statutory Powers Procedure Act and subsections (11.0.2) and (24), the Municipal Board may dismiss all or part of an appeal without holding a hearing, on its own initiative or on the motion of any party, if,

    (a) it is of the opinion that,

    (i) the reasons set out in the notice of appeal do not disclose any apparent land use planning ground upon which the Board could allow all or part of the appeal,

    (ii) the appeal is not made in good faith or is frivolous or vexatious,

    (iii) the appeal is made only for the purpose of delay, or

    (iv) the appellant has persistently and without reasonable grounds commenced before the Board proceedings that constitute an abuse of process;

    (a.1) Repealed:  2006, c. 23, s. 15 (15).

    (b) the appellant has not provided written reasons for the appeal;

    (b.1) the appellant intends to argue a matter mentioned in subsection (19.0.1) but has not provided the explanations required by that subsection;

    (c) the appellant has not paid the fee prescribed under the Ontario Municipal Board Act; or

    (d) the appellant has not responded to a request by the Municipal Board for further information within the time specified by the Board.

    Related Sections

    An explanation of the grounds of appeal is required to be set out in a notice of appeal:

    Parallel subsections: 

    • official plans and official plan amendments (s.17(45))

    • requested official plan amendments (s.22(11.0.4))

    Related Statutes

    Section 4.6 of the Statutory Powers Procedure Act allows a tribunal to dismiss a proceeding without a hearing and prescribes notice and other requirements that must be met before a proceeding can be so dismissed.

    Related Regulations

    O. Reg. 174/16 (as amended by O. Reg. 67/18): TRANSITIONAL MATTERS — GENERAL, s.23 Appeal re amendment to zoning by-law where application refused; s.24 Appeal re amendment to zoning by-law where failure to make decision on application; s.25 Appeal re passing of zoning by-law, etc.

    Related Tribunal Rules

    Rules of Practice and Procedure:

    Rule 26.05 Preliminary Screening of the Notice of Appeal The Tribunal shall, within 10 days of the Registrar’s acknowledgement of receipt of a notice of appeal, undertake a screening to make a preliminary determination of the validity of the notice of appeal, and shall thereafter advise the person who filed the notice, and the municipality and the approval authority, of the result of this screening exercise.

    Rule 26.06 Dispute as to a Valid Appeal Where the screening has made a preliminary determination that a notice of appeal is valid, the municipality, the approval authority or a party including a person whose application is the subject of the appeal, if they wish to challenge that preliminary determination, may request a date for a motion from the Tribunal, with notice to the Appellant, to set aside the validation of the notice of appeal and to seek an order to dismiss the appeal without a hearing. The requirements in Rule 10 will apply to the motion.

    Rule 26.07 Tribunal Member May Initiate a Motion A Member may initiate a motion, at any time in a proceeding, and direct the municipality, approval authority or a party including a person whose application is the subject of the appeal, to file and exchange submissions necessary for the Tribunal to inquire into the matter of its jurisdiction over the matter raised in the notice of appeal.

    Rule 26.08 Dispute as to a Not Valid Appeal Where the Tribunal has made a preliminary determination that an appeal is not valid, the Tribunal shall notify the person who filed the appeal. A person so notified may within 15 days make a written motion to the Tribunal under Rule 10, challenging the preliminary determination that an appeal is not valid and shall provide the motion materials to the municipality, approval authority and any other Appellants. The requirements in Rule 10 will apply to this motion.

    Rule 26.09 The Effect of a Ruling under RULE 26.06, RULE 26.07 and RULE 26.08 In the event the Tribunal makes a determination that an appeal is not valid, the appeal is dismissed. In the event the Tribunal sets aside the preliminary determination and finds that the appeal is valid, the appeal will proceed in accordance with the process outlined by these Rules.

    Wood Bull Commentary

    Subsection 34(25) has been amended by Bill 139 to make the dismissal of an appeal without holding a hearing mandatory on certain grounds, whereas it was previously discretionary.  The grounds for dismissal identified in the subsection are similar in principle to those identified in the pre-Bill 139 Planning Act, and in that context, some case law decided under the pre-Bill 139 Planning Act may remain relevant or helpful. 

    One new ground for dismissal has been added, being the failure of an appellant to provide the requisite explanations in the notice of appeal.  

    In the post-Bill 139 Planning Act, an appellant on a refusal or non-decision (s.34(11)) is required in all notices of appeal to explain two matters:

    a) how the existing part or parts of the by-law that would be affected by the amendment that is the subject of the application are inconsistent with a provincial policy statement or fail to conform with or conflict with a provincial plan or upper tier official plan (s.34(11.0.0.0.4)(a)); and

    b) how the amendment that is the subject of the application is consistent with provincial policy statements and conforms with or does not conflict with applicable provincial plans and official plans (s.34(11.0.0.0.4)(b)).

    In the event of an appeal of the passing of a by-law (s.34(19)), an appellant is required in all notices of appeal to explain the by-law being appealed is inconsistent with a provincial policy statement or fails to conform with or conflicts with a provincial plan or official plan (s.34(19.0.2)).

    As set out in paragraph 4 of this subsection, if an appellant fails to provide the explanation in the notice of appeal, the Tribunal must dismiss the appeal without holding a hearing.  Additionally (as set in paragraphs 1 and 2), if the explanation provided in the notice of appeal does not disclose the required information, the Tribunal must dismiss the appeal without holding a hearing.

    As noted above, other grounds for dismissal that appeared in the pre-Bill 139 Planning Act remain in the post-Bill 139 Planning Act.

    CaseLaw

    Pizzo v Thorold (City), 2018 - Tribunal order dismissing the appeal without a hearing on the basis of the failure of the appellant to provide an explanation for the appeal in accordance with the legislative requirements set out in subsection 34 (19.0.2) of the Planning Act.

  • 34(25.1) REPRESENTATION

    34(25.1) Before dismissing all or part of an appeal, the Tribunal shall notify the appellant and give the appellant the opportunity to make representation on the proposed dismissal but this subsection does not apply if the appellant has not complied with a request made under paragraph 5 or 6 of subsection (25).  2000, c. 26, Sched. K, s. 5 (2); 2017, c. 23, Sched. 3, s. 10 (12).

    Legislative History

    Bill 139 amended this subsection by replacing the words “clause (25) (d)” with the words “paragraph 5 or 6 of subsection (25)”  to reflect the amendments to subsection 34(25) and by replacing the words “the Municipal Board” with the words “the Tribunal”. 

    Related Regulations

    O. Reg. 174/16 (as amended by O. Reg. 67/18): TRANSITIONAL MATTERS — GENERAL, s.23 Appeal re amendment to zoning by-law where application refused; s.24 Appeal re amendment to zoning by-law where failure to make decision on application; s.25 Appeal re passing of zoning by-law, etc.

  • 34(25.1.1) SAME [Substantially Different Application]

    34(25.1.1)  Despite the Statutory Powers Procedure Act and subsection (24), the Tribunal may, on its own initiative or on the motion of the municipality or the Minister, dismiss all or part of an appeal without holding a hearing if, in the Tribunal’s opinion, the application to which the appeal relates is substantially different from the application that was before council at the time of its decision.  2006, c. 23, s. 15 (16).

    Legislative History

    Bill 139 amended this subsection to delete reference to subsection (11.0.2), which was repealed by Bill 139 and by replacing the words “the Municipal Board” with the words “the Tribunal”.

    Related Statutes

    Section 4.6 of the Statutory Powers Procedure Act allows a tribunal to dismiss a proceeding without a hearing and prescribes notice and other requirements that must be met before a proceeding can be so dismissed.

    Related Regulations

    O. Reg. 174/16 (as amended by O. Reg. 67/18): TRANSITIONAL MATTERS — GENERAL, s.23 Appeal re amendment to zoning by-law where application refused; s.24 Appeal re amendment to zoning by-law where failure to make decision on application; s.25 Appeal re passing of zoning by-law, etc.

  • 34(25.2) DISMISSAL

    34(25.2) Despite the Statutory Powers Procedure Act, the Tribunal may dismiss all or part of an appeal after holding a hearing or without holding a hearing on the motion under subsection (25) or (25.1.1), as it considers appropriate.  2006, c. 23, s. 15 (17); 2017, c. 23, Sched. 5, s. 93 (7).

    Legislative History

    Bill 139 amends this subsection by replacing the words “the Municipal Board” and “the Board” with the words “the Tribunal”.  This amendment will come into force on a day to be named by proclamation of the Lieutenant Governor.

 


Bill 139 received Royal Assent on 12 December 2017, and came into force on 3 April 2018, the day named by proclamation of the Lieutenant Governor. 

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Note: Material on the Wood Bull website is intended as general information and commentary.  Please consult the e-Laws website for the legislation.  In order to make these Wood Bull Guides useful resources, we welcome any comments and suggestions.  

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